Defense Policy Roadmap Towards a Golden Indonesia 2045: Establishment of the Indonesian Space Armed Forces


  • Aris Sarjito Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia



defense capabilities, defense policy roadmap, golden Indonesia, Indonesian Space Armed Forces



The current condition of Indonesia's defense capabilities is a topic of great importance, considering the evolving geopolitical landscape and the increasing need for a strong defense force in the region.

This research aims to examine the rationale behind the establishment of the Indonesian Space Armed Forces as a crucial component of Indonesia's defense policy roadmap towards a golden future by 2045.

This qualitative research will employ a secondary data analysis method. It will draw upon various sources, including government reports, academic papers, and expert opinions, to gather the necessary information for analysis. The research findings will shed light on the current condition of Indonesia's defense capabilities, highlighting strengths and areas that require improvement.

The study will delve into the rational reasons for establishing the Indonesian Space Armed Forces, emphasizing the growing importance of space technology in defense and the need to safeguard Indonesia's interests and sovereignty in space. Furthermore, it will explore the key components of a defense policy roadmap, including advanced defense systems, a robust military-industrial complex, and enhanced regional cooperation.

The research will also assess the implementation of the defense policy roadmap and the challenges hindering its progress. It will examine issues such as budget constraints, technology transfer, human resource development, and strategic partnerships.

In conclusion, this research explores Indonesia's defense capabilities, the establishment of the Indonesian Space Armed Forces, and the challenges faced in implementing a comprehensive defense strategy for a secure future.

Keywords: defense capabilities, defense policy roadmap, golden Indonesia, Indonesian Space Armed Forces


Adams, R. B. (2020). A Sociological, Economic and Political Model for Future Space Exploration. In ASCEND 2020 (p. 4267).

Anton, M., Agus, S., & Achluddin, I. (2021). Indonesian Defense Diplomacy in the Resolution of the South China Sea Conflict. Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 4(2), 33.

Borowitz, M. (2019). Legal Considerations and Future Options for Space Situational Awareness. Ga. J. Int’l & Comp. L., 48, 695.

Burton, J., Thompson, D., Papa, A., & Wong, A. (2022). INTERNATIONAL SPACE COLLABORATION AND SECURITY. Æther: A Journal of Strategic Airpower & Spacepower, 1(4), 35–48.

Butow, S. J., Cooley, T., Felt, E., Mozer, J. B., Hardy, D. A., & Garretson, P. (2020). State of the Space Industrial Base 2020: A Time for Action to Sustain US Economic & Military Leadership in Space. Washington, DC.

Cako, S. (2020). The Challenges of Russian Militarization in Outer Space. Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar Och Tidskrift, 3, 149–162.

Carlson, M., & Aggarwal, V. (2021). Military forces, coercive signals, and disaster response effectiveness. Natural Hazards Review, 22(1), 04020053.

Cornwall, J. M., Dimotakis, P. E., Dyson, F., Eardley, D. M., Garwin, R. L., Hammer, D. A., Koonin, S., Lewis, N. S., Max, C. E., & Ruderman, M. A. (2000). Space Infrastructure for 2020. JSR, 99, 125.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

De Zwart, M., & Stephens, D. (2019). The space (innovation) race: the inevitable relationship between military technology and innovation. Melbourne Journal of International Law, 20(1), 1–28.

Drew II, M. J. V. (2020). The Army's Gap in Operational-Level Intelligence for Space as Part of Multi-Domain Operations. MILITARY REVIEW.

Efendi, A., Madjid, M. A., Ahmad, I., Toruan, T. S. L., & Dwicahyono, T. (2023). Government Strategy in Supporting Dual Use Technology Product Development on Defense Industry in Indonesia. Journal of Survey in Fisheries Sciences, 10(2S), 1159–1174.

Fox, S. G., & A, A. W. A. R. C. C. B. P. (2001). The Dimming of Joint Vision 2020: A Concern That the Lack of Military Satellite Communications Will Impede the Future Force. US Army War College.

Francoise, J., & Leuwayan, S. (2023). The Readiness of Indonesian Space Defence. AEGIS: Journal of International Relations, 7(1).

Gordon, K., Burnell, K., & Wilson, C. (2020). Outside the military "bubble": Life after service for UK ex-armed forces personnel. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 50.


Harrison, T., Johnson, K., & Roberts, T. G. (2019). Space threat assessment 2019. Center for Strategic & International Studies.

Kim, J.-C., & Choi, S.-C. (2008). A Study on the Defense Standardization Policy Roadmap. Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology, 11(1), 33–42.

Koshova, S. (2021). THE SPACE INDUSTRY AS THE DRIVING FORCE OF THE ECONOMY AND THE BASIS OF NATIONAL SECURITY. Publishing House «European Scientific Platform», 153–169.

Leuprecht, C., & Kasurak, P. (2020). The Canadian Armed Forces and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief: Defining a Role. Waterloo, ON: Centre for International Governance Innovation.

Liu, Z., Chen, G., Chi, L., & Lin, W. (2020). Research On the Development Trend of Military Intergenerational Communication. 2020 International Conference on Computer Engineering and Application (ICCEA), 62–67.

Lootens, S. R. (1998). Space Force 2020: A Force for the Future. Maxwell Airforce.

Manurung, Y. S., Maarif, S., Toruan, T. S. L., & Swastanto, Y. (2023). Indonesian National Defense Strategy in the Asean Region of the 21st Century Based on Defense System and Security Population Demography. JMKSP (Jurnal Manajemen, Kepemimpinan, Dan Supervisi Pendidikan), 8(2), 615–624.

Oikonomou, I. (2023). The European Space Industry as a Driving Force for Militarization. In The Militarization of European Space Policy (pp. 92–108). Routledge.

Oktaviano, D., Mahroza, J., & Risman, H. (2020). Indonesia defense strategy towards Indo-Pacific (Case Study: The ASEAN outlook on the Indo-Pacific). International Affairs and Global Strategy, 80, 21–29.

Shabbir, Z., Sarosh, A., & Nasir, S. I. (2021). Policy Considerations for Nascent Space Powers. Space Policy, 56, 101414.

Shaturaev, J. (2021). 2045: Path to nation's golden age (Indonesia Policies and Management of Education). Science and Education, 2(12), 866–875.

Situmeang, F., Suyudi, I., & Susilo, A. K. (2020). Defense offset strategy for development of the national defense industry in Indonesia. Journal of Defense Resources Management, 11(1), 108–123.

Sjamsoeddin, S., Yusgiantoro, P., Saragih, H. J. R., & Soepandji, B. S. (2022). The Challenges Of Indonesia Future Defense Capability Advancement. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6(11), 345–352.

Smagh, N. S. (2020). Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance design for great power competition. Congressional Research Service, 46389.

Sönnichsen, A. (2021). Militarization and securitization of outer space. A Research Agenda for Space Policy, 89–102.

Titus, B. M., & L, A. I. R. W. A. R. C. M. A. F. B. A. (2020). Establishing a Space Profession within the US Space Force. Air War College.

Tomz, M., Weeks, J. L. P., & Yarhi-Milo, K. (2020). Public opinion and decisions about military force in democracies. International Organization, 74(1), 119–143.

Vogel, D. (2020). German armed forces approaching outer space: the Air and Space Operations Centre as a gateway to multi-domain operations.


Wilson, R. S., Stover, C., & Tomaszewski, S. R. J. (2020). Defense Space Partnerships: A Strategic Priority. Space Agenda 2021, 2020–2029.

Yaniz, F. (2022). Outer Space's Legal Framework, Challenges, and Policies. In Security and Defence: Ethical and Legal Challenges in the Face of Current Conflicts (pp. 3–22). Springer.